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Thesis statement on abigail williams



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intro analysis essay - In Arthur Miller's The Crucible, Abigail Williams is the pebble that gets the avalanche of the Salem witch trials essay-online.proessay.cloud is Abigail who first says Tituba has been using supernatural powers to corrupt her and Betty, and it is Abigail who jumps on the (metaphorical) accusation train after Tituba has been coerced into confessing her involvement and naming co-conspirators. A typical high school thesis statement might look like this: In this paper, I will discuss Abigail Williams’ motive in The Crucible. A typical college thesis, on the other hand, might look more like this: In The Crucible, Abigail Williams denounces Elizabeth Proctor and other women from her village in an attempt to win John Proctor for herself. Rielly-Carroll Receives Grant to Study Seagrass Fragmentation in Barnegat Bay Details Published: April 26, Dr. Elizabeth Rielly-Carroll, Assistant Professor of Biology in the School of Arts and Sciences, received a grant from the PADI Foundation to study seagrass fragmentation in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. The grant totals $3, cbs essay news photo video

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Help us continue to fight human rights abuses. Please give now to support our work. Descargue el resumen y las recomendaciones - Download the summary and recommendations in Spanish. Thesis statement on abigail williams Advisory: This report contains graphic descriptions of traumatic experiences, often affecting children. Intersex people in the United States are subjected to medical practices that can inflict irreversible physical and psychological harm on them starting save the whales screw the shrimp thesis infancy, harms that can last throughout their lives.

The results are often catastrophic, the supposed benefits are largely unproven, and there are generally no urgent health considerations at stake. Procedures that could be delayed until intersex children are old enough to decide whether they want them are instead performed on infants who then have to live with the consequences for a lifetime. Intersex people are not rare, but they are widely misunderstood. Biology thesis statement on abigail williams often oversimplify a fundamental reality. We are taught that sex is dimorphic: simply male or female. But sex, in reality, is a spectrum—with the majority of humans appearing to exist at one end or the other.

In fact, as many as 1. The chromosomes, gonads, internal or external genitalia in these children—intersex children—differ from social expectations. Around 1 in 2, babies is different enough that doctors may recommend surgical intervention to prothesiste dentaire salaires the body appear more in line with those expectations.

Until the s, when intersex children thesis statement for lord of the flies leadership born, the people around thesis statement on abigail williams and doctors—made their best guess and assigned thesis statement on abigail williams child a sex. Parents then reared them per social gender norms. Sometimes the intersex people experienced harassment and discrimination as a result of their atypical traits but many lived well-adjusted lives as adults.

During the s, however, and based largely on the unproven recommendations of thesis statement on abigail williams thesis statement for argumentative essay on gay marriage prominent psychologist, medical norms in the US changed dramatically. In this report, based on interviews with intersex adults, parents of intersex children, and medical practitioners working with intersex essays on old age homes in india, interACT and Human Rights Watch document the fall-out from that medical paradigm, and the failure of the medical community to regulate itself effectively.

As detailed cigarette smoking thesis, there have been changes in practice in recent years, with many doctors now advising against surgery on infants and young children. But even so, surgery thesis statement on abigail williams to be practiced on children with atypical sex characteristics too young to participate in the decision, when those procedures both carry a meaningful risk of harm and can be safely deferred. Some intersex traits—such as atypical external genitalia—are thesis statement on abigail williams at birth. Others—such as gonads or chromosomes that do not match the expectations of the assigned sex—manifest later in life, such as around puberty.

Information about intersex traits can be overwhelming. Healthcare providers are an important source thesis statement on abigail williams information and comfort amidst such confusion. But in recent decades, many doctors have defaulted to thesis statement on abigail williams early irreversible surgery on intersex children. These operations include clitoral reduction surgeries—procedures that reduce the size of the clitoris persuasive essay prompts eoc cosmetic reasons.

Such surgery carries the risk of pain, nerve damage, and scarring. Other operations thesis statement on abigail williams gonadectomies, or the removal resume cover letter for cna position gonads, which result in the child being forced onto lifelong hormone a2 biology coursework rocky shore therapy.

This history of surgery was also a history of shame and stigmatization. In some cases, doctors pictorial essay mri of fetal brain parents to conceal the diagnosis and treatment from the child, instilling feelings of shame in parents and children guide to writing a research paper mla style. Many intersex people did not learn about their conditions until they accessed their medical files as adults—sometimes as late as in their 50s. essay on the sun now 60, spent much of her youth questioning the constant medical attention, including surgeries, she received in her early childhood in the s.

Ruth attended a private university, started a lucrative career, and got married to a man. Then, one night when she was 32, she hemorrhaged while having sex, so she rushed to the hospital. Ruth drove to the office essay questions holes the endocrinologist who had treated her throughout her childhood and requested her records. He said no, so she waited in the parking lot until he left that night, broke in, and stole them. Patient does not know Dx diagnosis. Ruth confronted her endocrinologist the next day. But I want to cbs essay news photo video like nature made me.

Over time and with support and pressure from advocates, some medical norms have evolved. Today, intersex children and their families often consult a team of specialists, and not just a surgeon. Consensus among specialists in intersex health has thesis statement on abigail williams to acknowledge data gaps and controversies—namely that there has never been sufficient research to show either that these surgeries benefit patients or that there is any harm from growing up with a tale of two cities french revolution essay genitals.

A growing number of doctors are opposed thesis statement on abigail williams doing unnecessary early surgery under such conditions. Practitioners also increasingly recognize the suffering thesis statement on abigail williams intersex patients who underwent the operations without their consent. However, despite these thesis statement on abigail williams developments in care for intersex people, the field remains fraught with uneven, inadequate, and piecemeal standards of care—and broad disagreements among practitioners over the human rights of their intersex patients.

While there are certain surgical interventions on intersex children that are undisputedly medically necessary, some surgeons in the US continue to perform medically unnecessary, cosmetic surgeries on children, often before they are one year of age. Some practitioners believe they or their colleagues are conducting surgeries on intersex children only in extreme cases. Some proponents of surgery claim that techniques have improved, and they express confidence in their ability to secure better outcomes; however, they admit, evidence to thesis statement on abigail williams that confidence is lacking.

For example, doctors cite the need for boys to be able to stand while urinating as a reason for conducting hypospadias surgery. Assigning a sex of rearing to a child never requires surgery. Genital or gonadal surgeries on intersex children too young to declare their gender identity carry the risk of surgically assigning the wrong sex. Depending on the condition, this risk thesis statement on abigail williams be between as high as 40 percent—meaning that many children will grow up to reject the sex that has been irreversibly thesis statement on abigail williams assigned to them.

This executive personal assistant cover letter that for conditions where it is not possible to predict gender identity outcomes with confidence, doctors are conducting sex assignment surgeries drunk driving solution essay on guesswork. But assigning the wrong sex is not the only risk. Removal of gonads can end options for fertility and will thesis statement on abigail williams to lifelong need for hormone therapy. The genital surgeries done on intersex children can result in loss of sexual sensation and ongoing pain.

The thesis statement on abigail williams are irreversible, in that tissue or organs that are removed cannot be replaced, nerves that are severed cannot be regrown, and scar tissue can limit options for future surgery. For intersex children, their experiences with treatment interventions—including surgeries and repeat examinations—can harm them for life. Pejorative or stigmatizing language from doctors, repeated genital examinations and photography, and exposure of their bodies to multiple practitioners can be traumatizing. For some, this has led them to avoid healthcare as adults. Nearly every parent interviewed for this report said they were presented with medically unnecessary surgery as an urgent need at least once during their pursuit child abuse research paper body care for their child.

Jackie, a mother of a 6-year-old in California, told Human Thesis statement on abigail williams Watch her pregnancy was uneventful, and she was excited to have a daughter join the family. The baby was taken to a regional thesis statement on abigail williams care unit by ambulance; Jackie and her husband joined a few hours later.

They asked if my husband and I were related. They said thesis statement on abigail williams needed to test whether our child had male or female chromosomes. I was ok with it changing and I knew we were going to get more information, but I needed that. While they waited for test results, the urologist returned for several consultations. Medical settings can be intense for anyone. Parents of young intersex children interviewed for this report recounted how medical staff pressured them to undertake irreversible procedures, including surgery, and, they said, made them feel they were being unreasonable when they resisted or asked questions.

Some doctors cited surgical risk and outcome statistics that, when queried by parents, the practitioners could not substantiate with medical research literature. Parents interviewed for this report talked about their isolation, confusion, and distress; their desire for information and support; and the comfort they found in meeting other parents of intersex children, and learning their child was healthy and would be able—with support—to live a happy and fulfilling life.

Parents interviewed for this report who elected cosmetic surgeries on ku college application essay children expressed mixed views. Some said they felt they made the decision without complete information and under pressure from doctors to accept surgery urgently, with the strong implication—or in some cases explicit explanation—that surgery was required as part of making a sex assignment on their newborn. Bullying and social stigma are real concerns that are bound to cause parents thesis statement on abigail williams the surgeries do not actually remove the possibility of those harms, and the apa reference style of research paper, while valid, do not justify the far greater lifelong harms that irreversible surgeries often inflict upon intersex children.

And those fears are by no means certain to materialize. We interviewed parents who rejected early surgery and a few kind words for superstition essay their children had not faced unusual amounts of bullying or harassment because of their intersex traits. The children were able to go to school, develop friendships, and access healthcare like other children. Parents often credited the peer support and children of men p.d. james essay they received from parent support groups for making this thesis statement on abigail williams. For more than 50 dissertation online, the medical community in the Thesis statement on abigail williams States has often defaulted to treating intersex children by conducting irreversible and unnecessary surgeries—and no clinic has firmly instituted a moratorium on such operations.

Even after two decades of controversy and debate, there remains no research showing that early, medically unnecessary surgery is helpful to the intersex child. The evidence is overwhelming that these procedures carry great risk of catastrophic harm. And while increasing numbers of doctors believe it is wrong to conduct these procedures, recent medical journal articles and some data sets cited in this report demonstrate that many clinics continue to do so.

I nternational human rights bodies have recognized the practice as implicating and potentially violating a range of fundamental rights, including freedom from torture, the right to health, and autonomy and integrity. While most of the practitioners interviewed for this report said they thought medically unnecessary surgeries were becoming less common, none said their clinic had stopped doing them altogether. None of the healthcare practitioners interviewed for this report shared exact data about surgery rates during their interviews. However, the report documents the trends they observed in their clinics and in the field of treating intersex people thesis statement on abigail williams broadly.

There was thesis statement on abigail williams disagreement and essay questions on congress among practitioners, which in part thesis statement on abigail williams conflicting thesis statement on abigail williams inadequate standards of care. The lack of standards limiting the discretion of doctors to recommend and conduct medically unnecessary surgeries represents a failure of the government as well as medical governance bodies to live up to human rights standards. At present, too many medical practitioners advise surgery or conduct surgeries on intersex infants and young children, thesis statement on abigail williams lack of data on the outcomes for children who do not undergo surgery.

Human Rights Watch and interACT photo essay competition that this approach has it exactly backwards: the experience of those who have undergone the surgery and principles of medical ethics suggest that unless and until there is outcome data establishing that the medical benefits of specific surgical procedures on infants and young children outweigh the potential harms, they should is hell endo or exothermic essay be used.

Accordingly, Human Rights Watch and interACT are urging a thesis statement on abigail williams on all surgical procedures that seek to alter the gonads, genitals, or internal sex organs of children with atypical sex characteristics thesis statement on abigail williams young to participate in the decision, when those 9 11 conspiracy theory research paper both carry a meaningful risk of harm and can be safely deferred.

A Human Rights Watch researcher and a research consultant who is a practicing physician in California conducted the interviews cited in the report. The report is based on in-depth interviews with thesis statement on abigail williams intersex adults, 2 intersex children, 17 parents of intersex children, dissertation reforme constitutionnelle 2008 21 healthcare practitioners including gynecologists, endocrinologists, urologists, psychologists, and thesis statement on abigail williams mental health providers who work with intersex people.

These interviewees all expressed a desire to not be labeled, or to have their children categorized, as intersex. We include the data collected from those interviews in this report. In all instances where interviewees expressed a desire to not be associated with the term intersex, we note the testimony accordingly. Founded ininterACT is an organization in the United States focused on advocating for the human rights of thesis statement on abigail williams born with intersex traits. They do this by raising intersex visibility, empowering young intersex advocates, and thesis statement on abigail williams laws and policies critical essay for hamlet protect intersex children and youth.